Closing thoughts

Now that I have shared my knowledge about the common pathologies associated with the Gastrointestinal (GI) system, you can go out and share it with your friends!

The reason why I picked this system out of all the body systems was due to the fact that it included the colorectal cancer. I have a grandpa and an uncle currently suffering from colorectal cancer for a while now. It isn’t as serious as it being brain cancer, but it is still a life threatening thing to experience.

I hope you enjoyed my website! Come back soon. 🙂

Lower Gastrointestinal Disorders

Celiac’s Disease:

Etiology: Immune reaction due to gluten. It damages the lining of the small intestine — preventing absorption.

Signs and Symptoms: General signs that comes with the GI system: diarrhea, bloating, intermittent pain.

Treatments: Gluten free diet and Medications that will treat symptoms

Crohn’s Disease: 

Etiology: An autoimmune pathology. Caused by a virus. Fibrosis, necrosis, or death of the large intestinal tissue.

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the Right Lower Quadrant, Chronic Diarrhea, Weight loss, Loss of appetite, Skin rash, and Joint pain.

Treatments: Diet, Lifestyle changes, Medication, Surgery

Ulcerative Colitis: 

Etiology: Chronic inflammation and ulceration of the mucosal lining in the colon

Signs and Symptoms: Recurrent bloody diarrhea, Abdominal pain, Fever, Weight loss, and signs of dehydration

Treatments: Diet, Lifestyle changes, Medication, Surgery in severe cases, Can be life threatening

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): 

Etiology: Caused by poor diet and stress, prevalent in young adult women, and results in irritation

Signs and Symptoms: Diarrhea, constipation, Bloating and abdominal distention

Treatments: Change in diet, reduction of alcohol, stress and caffeine, medications


Etiology: Inflammation of the appendix

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant, Nausea, loss of appetite, rebound tenderness, and fever.

Treatments: Immediate referral and surgical removal.


Etiology: Small, pouch-like herniation in the intestinal wall

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal cramps, bloating, and constipations

Treatments: Dietary changes and pain medication


Etiology: Acute inflammation of the diverticula. Accumulation of intestinal matter. Caused by bacteria.

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the Left Lower Quadrant, Fever, Chills, Vomiting, Malaise, Abdominal muscle spasms, and Constipation/diarrhea.

Treatments: High fiber diets, stool softeners, antibiotics, and hospitalization/surgery


Etiology: Dilated veins on the mucous membrane of the anus or rectum

Signs and Symptoms: Rectal bleeding and vague discomfort

Treatments: Focus on easing discomfort by having a high fiber diet, taking stool softeners, and medication.

Abdominal Hernia: 

Etiology: Categorized by location. Congenital weakness. Caused by muscle weakness and strain.

Signs and symptoms: Lump (when supine), Pain in the groin, and bowel obstruction.

Treatments: Surgery and Reduction

Colorectal Cancer:

Etiology: An abnormal growth of cells in the colon.

Signs and symptoms: Change in bowel habits, Rectal bleeding, Cramping, abdominal pain, weakness and fatigue

Treatments: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation

Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders


Etiology:  Caused by irritation which leads to heartburn and indigestion.

Signs and Symptoms: Uncomfortable burning sensation under the sternum

Treatments: Change your diet and medications.

Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD):

Etiology: Caused by the malfunction of the esophageal sphincter

Signs and Symptoms: An uncomfortable burning sensation under the sternum, more frequent and more intense compared to GERD.

Treatment: Dietary and lifestyle changes and prescription medications.

Hiatal Hernia: 

Etiology: Protrusion of part of the proximal stomach through the diaphragm and into the thorax

Signs and Symptoms: Uncomfortable burning sensation under the sternum (more intense and more frequent than GERD).

Treatments: Medication or Surgery (in worst case scenarios)

Peptic Ulcer: 

Etiology: Caused by gastric juices. Anything that disrupts this protective barrier increases the risk of a peptic ulcer. Caused by a bacteria called H. Pylori or irregular digestion (acid imbalance)

Signs and Symptoms: intermittent pain that can improve or worsen after eating, Recurs after several weeks or months, Abdominal pain at night, and Bloody vomit.

Treatments: Avoid irritating foods, Antacids, Medications


Gastrointestinal Infections

Food Poisoning:

Etiology: Caused by the ingestion of food-borne bacteria.

Signs and Symptoms: Signs and symptoms typically occur within an hour or two after ingesting the contaminated food.
Non-threatening signs and symptoms include: Nausea, Vomiting, Watery Diarrhea, quadrant specific abdominal pains and cramps, and fever.
If you experience any of the following symptoms, consult a doctor right away: Inability to keep liquids down, bloody vomit and/or diarrhea, excessive pain in the abdomen, and fever higher than 101.5 degrees Fahrenheit.

Treatments: Rest, Hydration, and Antibiotic medications.

Traveler’s Diarrhea:

Etiology: Infectious diarrhea when traveling to foreign countries. It could be either viral or bacterial. Usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route.

Signs and Symptoms: Diarrhea occurs usually during your trip or shortly after you return home from your trip.
Non-threatening Signs and Symptoms: Excretion of loose stools about 3 times a day, abdominal cramps, Nausea, Vomiting and Fever.
If you experience any of the following symptoms, consult a doctor right away: Persistent vomiting, bloody diarrhea, Fever over 102 degrees fahrenheit, Dry mouth, and decreased amount of urine.

Treatment: Rest, Hydration, Antibiotic medications, Anti-motility medications, and Pepto-bismol.


What is it? Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the stomach.

Etiology: Stomach inflammation that causes erosion of the entire mucosa

Signs and Symptoms: Burning pain in the upper abdomen, Nausea, Vomiting, Feeling of fullness after eating

Treatments: Antibiotics, H2 blockers, and Antacids.

Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu):

Etiology: Transmitted from the oral-fecal route & lasts for 3 to 5 days.

Signs and Symptoms: Severe vomiting, Diarrhea, Abdominal pains, Fever, Muscle Pain

Treatments: Rest and hydration.

About the Gastrointestinal (GI) System

The Gastrointestinal (GI) System is almost the same thing as a the Digestive System. The Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine (colon), rectum, and anus. The digestive system includes everything the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract consists of plus the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The GI tract is where the food passes through from the mouth. It starts off in the mouth, then through the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and lastly the rectum.

The mouth is where the food is chewed and prepared to go through the esophagus. The esophagus then brings the broken down food into the the stomach to be stored. The stomach has gastric acid that helps food get broken down even more, although, the stomach does NOT absorb any of the food. Next, the food gets brought to the one of the three parts of the small intestine: Duodenum. In the duodenum, bile and liver enzymes are brought together with the food then is sent to the second part of the small intestine, the jejunum. The jejunum continues to further break down the food into more essential nutrients. Lastly, the ileum, the third part of the small intestine, absorbs the food products and liquids. The waste is then passed from the ileum to the large intestine, or colon. In the colon, waste products are stored until it is ready to exit the body through the rectum. Also the large intestine absorbs a little bit of water and electrolytes.

Now that you know the basics, the next couple pages will talk more about common pathologies of the GI system!


Good Day! This website’s main objective is to educate the public about the Gastrointestinal (GI) System, which is part of the digestive system. There will be background information about how the GI system differs from the Digestive System, etiologies and signs/symptoms of common infections and disorders that occur in the GI system, and treatments. Hopefully, you enjoy reading along and learning about the Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract! One of the most interesting systems of the body, in my opinion! Stick around 🙂

P.S.: I know the website URL has nothing to do with the gastrointestinal topic of my website, but I was unable to change it according to tiger domains. I hope this doesn’t scare you away!