Lower Gastrointestinal Disorders

Celiac’s Disease:

Etiology: Immune reaction due to gluten. It damages the lining of the small intestine — preventing absorption.

Signs and Symptoms: General signs that comes with the GI system: diarrhea, bloating, intermittent pain.

Treatments: Gluten free diet and Medications that will treat symptoms

Crohn’s Disease: 

Etiology: An autoimmune pathology. Caused by a virus. Fibrosis, necrosis, or death of the large intestinal tissue.

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the Right Lower Quadrant, Chronic Diarrhea, Weight loss, Loss of appetite, Skin rash, and Joint pain.

Treatments: Diet, Lifestyle changes, Medication, Surgery

Ulcerative Colitis: 

Etiology: Chronic inflammation and ulceration of the mucosal lining in the colon

Signs and Symptoms: Recurrent bloody diarrhea, Abdominal pain, Fever, Weight loss, and signs of dehydration

Treatments: Diet, Lifestyle changes, Medication, Surgery in severe cases, Can be life threatening

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): 

Etiology: Caused by poor diet and stress, prevalent in young adult women, and results in irritation

Signs and Symptoms: Diarrhea, constipation, Bloating and abdominal distention

Treatments: Change in diet, reduction of alcohol, stress and caffeine, medications


Etiology: Inflammation of the appendix

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the lower right quadrant, Nausea, loss of appetite, rebound tenderness, and fever.

Treatments: Immediate referral and surgical removal.


Etiology: Small, pouch-like herniation in the intestinal wall

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal cramps, bloating, and constipations

Treatments: Dietary changes and pain medication


Etiology: Acute inflammation of the diverticula. Accumulation of intestinal matter. Caused by bacteria.

Signs and Symptoms: Abdominal pain in the Left Lower Quadrant, Fever, Chills, Vomiting, Malaise, Abdominal muscle spasms, and Constipation/diarrhea.

Treatments: High fiber diets, stool softeners, antibiotics, and hospitalization/surgery


Etiology: Dilated veins on the mucous membrane of the anus or rectum

Signs and Symptoms: Rectal bleeding and vague discomfort

Treatments: Focus on easing discomfort by having a high fiber diet, taking stool softeners, and medication.

Abdominal Hernia: 

Etiology: Categorized by location. Congenital weakness. Caused by muscle weakness and strain.

Signs and symptoms: Lump (when supine), Pain in the groin, and bowel obstruction.

Treatments: Surgery and Reduction

Colorectal Cancer:

Etiology: An abnormal growth of cells in the colon.

Signs and symptoms: Change in bowel habits, Rectal bleeding, Cramping, abdominal pain, weakness and fatigue

Treatments: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Radiation

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